Are Time Market Rigidities Responsible for the Unemployment Charge Observed in the uk and Portugal? Essay

Are time market rigidities responsible for the unemployment level observed in the United Kingdom and England?

LUBS 1610: Research Skills For Economists


Expression Count: 2887

Table of Contents


Few specifics and figures4

Shifts in focus some

Labour marketplace institutions4-5

The Economic Crisis5-6

What do we know now? 6th





Appendix A9

Appendix B10

Appendix C11

Appendix D12

Appendix E13

Appendix F13

Appendix G

Figure a few - Changes in GDP and Unemployment14

Physique 6 -- Employment Security and Unemployment14

Figure six – Within GDP and Unemployment15

Appendix H 12-15


European unemployment rates were substantial even before the economic crisis. When compared to U. H, the Euro unemployment rate was often lower through the entire 1970s nevertheless has always been higher since the 1980s (Siebert, 1997). Saint-Paul (1996), states that " There may be somewhat of any consensus between economists that labour market rigidities are responsible for excessive unemployment in Europe”. This quote features the wrong doing to be inside the labour market with the assessment between the U. S and Europe pointing towards the big difference of versatility of the labour market because the problem. Nickell (1997) cited saying " The Western job market is usually rigid and inflexible. Effect: high joblessness. The North American job market is definitely dynamic and flexible. Result: Low unemployment”. In contrast to the U. S, the labour marketplace is stiffer in Europe may have stricter regulations. There was other credible reasons for high unemployment, like the oil surprise in the 1970s or effects coming from technological transform which could have experienced unemployment go up. However Siebert (1997) suggested that the U. S also suffered related experiences within their economy nevertheless did not go through drastic within unemployment it is therefore justified to think about the institutional setting in Europe. These types of theories had been however , over the decade old. Even though this is the circumstance, even with 30 years of data and clear differences in the advancement of unemployment, our familiarity with unemployment continues to be incomplete (Blanchard, 2006). The standard view even now is that The european countries is often offered as a one entity in the press and many professional documents (Howell, M. R., et al., 2006). Presently there will be 27 associates of the European Union and Blanchard (2006) explained that there is a sizable heterogeneity leading to a misinterpretation of ‘European Unemployment'. This is certainly proven by the fact that countries such as Portugal, Spain and Italy averaged an unemployment rate of at least 9% in the last decade although Austria, Netherlands and Denmark at 4% or much less (Appendix C) suggesting data must be used for individual countries to recognize the cause of unemployment. This daily news will therefore focus on two European countries, France and the UK, and will aim to ascertain if labour market rigidities are in charge of for the unemployment level observed currently.

Few specifics and statistics

The lack of employment rate noticed in Appendix B before 08 highlights the unchanged efficiency difference involving the U. S i9000 and Western european economies. Between years 2150 and 2005, rates in the EU varied between 8-9% and at the moment rising previously mentioned 10% in the present year underlining a cause of concern to the condition of the work market while the U. S hovered around 4-5%. Appendix C shows UK rates rising and falling around the five per cent mark right up until 2008 whereas France registered a much larger percentage differing between 8-9%. However , the crisis in 2008 noticed both the U. S plus the UK joblessness rates maximize dramatically to figures close to around 8% and 9% whereas England remained relatively unaffected. Job levels are very low in France at 64% in comparison to the UK's 72% followed by substantial youth...

Bibliography: Labour marketplace institutions

Establishments and policies regulate staff and companies in every time market by means of minimum income, unemployment insurance, severance shell out, advance see, labour taxes (Tasci and Zenker, 2011)

Blanchard, O. (2006). European unemployment: the evolution of facts and ideas. Economic Policy, 21(45), 5-59.

Euro commission, Eurostat. (July, 2012). Unemployment costs EU-27, EA-17, US and Japan, seasonally adjusted, January 2000 -- June 2012.

European Commission payment, Eurostat. (May, 2012). Joblessness rate, 2000-2011.

Howell, D

Nickell, S. (1997). Unemployment and Labor Industry Rigidities: Europe versus America. The Diary of Economic Perspective, 11(3), 55-74.

OECD. StatExtracts. 2008. Strictness of employment safety – general (1985-2008).

Saint-Paul, G. (1996) Exploring the political economy of labour industry institutions. Financial Policy, 11(23), 263-315.

Seager, A

Tasci, Meters., Zenker, Meters. (2011). Labor Market Solidity, Unemployment, and the Great Downturn. Economic Discourse.

The Economist (1999, 06 3rd). A shocking mistake. The Economist (Print impotence. )


TradingEconomics. (2012). France Lack of employment Rate (January 1996 -- December 2000)


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