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Explain the main features of the idea of Utilitarianism
The theory of Utilitarianism takes a name from the Latin phrase Utilis, which means ‘useful'. It was first produced by Jeremy Bentham, a philosopher and legal theorist with the 18th 100 years. Bentham desired to produce a modern and rational approach to values which might suit the changing society with the industrial grow older. This was also the time of the The french language and American Revolutions, along with the Enlightenment, so orthodox morality was challenged upon many fronts. Utilitarianism could possibly be regarded as a relativist, consequentialist and teleological system of ethics, prescribing not any fixed ethical rules and judging a task by their consequences or end result (Greek: telos).
Bentham argued the particular one should increase happiness for the majority (‘the best good for the very best number': Francis Hutcheson), a view which is referred to as ‘Utility Principle'. Happiness was thus equated with moral goodness. This kind of idea additional identifies Bentham as a ‘psychological hedonist', seeing that he viewed humans to be primarily determined by pleasure and the prevention of discomfort. A comfortable society might be a good culture.
To bring reason and evidence to the discipline of integrity, Bentham in that case put forward what he considered to be a clinical or empirical process in making moral decisions, known as the ‘hedonic calculus'. This kind of consisted of seven key criteria one must consider when coming up with a ethical choice:
Propinquity or perhaps remoteness (how close at hand enjoyment falls) Fecundity (how most likely pleasure is usually to be followed by more pleasure) Chastity
Extent (how many persons it affects)
Later inside the 19th hundred years, Bentham's The almighty son John Stuart Generator modified his theory. Work was a leading politician and philosopher of his day time, advocating significant and open-handed causes such as the equality of ladies. He considered Utilitarianism while an important but flawed way of ethics. When Bentham had regarded almost all pleasures as ‘commensurate'...
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